Saturday, March 7, 2020

WTO and the Environment

WTO and the Environment Free Online Research Papers The World Trade Organization is an international organization designed to manage and liberalize international trade. The WTO regulates the rules of trade between nations at a global level. While the WTO has been successful in promoting globalization, it has failed to recognize environmental concerns. The WTO needs to enforce pro-environment regulations at a global level. Without full participation from each nation laws will have a disproportionate impact on trade. If we continue operating without acknowledging the environment, the long term effects on the environment will be severe. The issue of environmental protection cannot continue to be ignored. In the absence of proper environmental regulation and resource management, increased trade might cause so much adverse damage that the gains from trade would be less than the environmental costs. How is the WTO harming the environment? While it can be argued that most trade causes little adverse impact on the environment, the fact is that when trade does cause harm, the WTO does nothing about it. The turtle-safe shrimp case provides evidence that the World Trade Agreement is interpreted narrowly in an effort to bar any policy that has negative affects on trade. In 1989 the United States put forth an effort to protect seven species of endangered sea turtles from the ‘shrimping’ industry. They required domestic shrimpers to use protective technology called Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs), which allowed turtles to escape from the shrimp nets. Congress banned the importation of shrimp caught by foreign shrimpers who refused to use TEDs. This action did not sit well with non-conforming countries. In 1996 Thailand, Malaysia, India, and Pakistan filed a complaint against the United States claiming that â€Å"the U.S. Turtle Shrimp Law violated international trade law by barring the importation of their shrimp and shrimp products.† The WTO ruled in 1998 against the United States asserting trade discrimination. This is a situation where the WTO could have stepped in and backed the United States, enforcing the use of TEDs, rather than finding them at fault for trying to save an endangered species. What is/has been done to address this problem? The WTO has had a long history of attempting to accommodate environmental concerns. In 1971, the WTO (who at this time was known as the GATT) created a division on Environmental Measures and International Trade (EMIT). This party failed miserably, which is not surprising considering their first meeting was held in 1991, 20 years after the group was created. After the failure of EMIT, the Commission on Trade and the Environment (CTE) was formed in 1994. The committee’s mandate is broad, promising to â€Å"identify the relationship between trade measures and environmental measures in order to promote sustainable development† as well as â€Å"make appropriate recommendations on whether any modifications of the provisions of the multilateral trading system are required, compatible with the open, equitable and non-discriminatory nature of the system † (WTO). The WTO has only recently started to look at the effects of trade and the environment. These organizations are virtually useless as long as the WTO continues to prioritize trade over the environment. Who should be held responsible? In order for divisions like the EMIT and the CTE to be effective, the WTO needs to enforce specific rules in the interest of the environment. I agree with Alison Sadvari, if this issue is not handled, it will have a negative impact on the world’s natural resources, which in turn will have a negative impact on trade. Individual governments will continue to be ineffective in their attempts to combat this problem because policies must be implemented without discrimination. For this reason, the WTO needs to determine what the major issues surrounding this topic are and enforce laws at a global level. The WTO has the power to enforce trade laws as they are â€Å"responsible for negotiating and implementing new trade agreements, and is in charge of policing member countries adherence to all the WTO agreements† . However, the WTO is more concerned with the negative effect environmental action will have on trade than they are with the effect trade has on the environment. A crit ic of the WTO wrote: â€Å"†¦the rules that the WTO is there to enforce are remarkably few – and they have almost nothing to do with looking after the long term interests of stakeholders, the natural environment or those who will inherit the planet in future generations† . Conclusion The first step in creating a national environmental law needs to begin with the WTO’s recognition of the problem. They have been going through the motions for years without taking affirmative action. By dealing forthrightly with these issues, the WTO can improve public support for freer trade and enhance its own status as a coherent and trustworthy instrument for global economic governance. Because the WTO holds the power to enforce change, the continuous pressure from activists will eventually force them into enacting environmental protection laws, regardless of the impact it has on trade. Work Cited 1. World Trade Organization. Wikipedia. 20 Apr 2007 . 2. Charnovitz, Steve. Addressing Environmental and Labor Issues in the World Trade Organization. Trade Global Markets. 1 Nov 1999. Progressive Policy Institute. 20 Apr 2007 . 3. The WTO, the Environment and Sustainable Development. The Citizens Guide to Trade, Environment and Sustainability. 24 Jan 2001. Friends of the Earth. 20 Apr 2007 . 4. Items on the CTE’s Work Programme. WTO. 20 Apr 2007 . 5. Impacts of WTO on the Environment, Cultures and Indigenous Peoples. 29 Nov 1999. 20 Apr 2007 . Research Papers on WTO and the EnvironmentDefinition of Export QuotasPETSTEL analysis of IndiaGenetic EngineeringThe Project Managment Office SystemRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfQuebec and CanadaAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaStandardized TestingOpen Architechture a white paper

Thursday, February 20, 2020

America and the Great War Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

America and the Great War - Essay Example In discussing the participation of United States, the paper pays particular attention to the reasons of America’s neutrality between 1914 and 1917 and eventually examines the specific events that led to US joining of war. Finally, the paper evaluates the contributions of USA to the war and to the extent; their entry resulted to the end of the war. I will briefly analyze the events that resulted that to the defeat of the Versailles treaty with particular attention to the role of President Woodrow Wilson during and after the war. Introduction When historians deeply analyze the cause of World War 1, we find that it was more complicated. The eruption of the war was not only caused by immediate chain of events but also some deep root causes (John, 2010). The paper tends to analyze the major events that led to the cause of World War 1. Emergence of Defense Alliances An alliance is a formal agreement negotiated between countries to assist each other in event of need. The signatories in an alliance are called Allies. Pre World War 1 saw the signing of many alliance agreements between countries. It was noted that the years preceding the World War 1, European countries made defense agreements which were mutual (Ross, 2008). This drew them closer to battles. According to Martin (2012), in these alliances, the agreements were that if one of the countries were attacked, the countries, which were allied to them in the alliances, were to come to their defense. Some of the notable alliances formed before the World War 1 according to Michael (2009) include the following: 1) The Dual Alliance of 1879 between Germany and Austria Hungary. 2) The Austro-Serbian Alliance of 1881 between Serbia and austral Hungary. 3) The Triple Alliance of 1882 between Germany, Austria Hungary and Italy. 4) The Triple Entete of 1914 between Britain, Russia and France. 5) The Franco -Russian alliance of 1894 between Russian and France. 6) The Anglo-Russian of 1907 between Britain and Russia. 7 ) Entente Cordiale of 1904 between France and Britain. In their article, History of the world wars, BBC (2013) states that the commitment to the alliances was seen Russia went to defend Serbia, her alley when Austria- Hungary attacked Serbia. When Germany saw Russia mobilizing her war artillery in a bid to come to the assistance of Serbia, the Germans declared war to Russia. This drew France to the war against the Germany and Austria Hungary. The unfolding events saw the Germans attacking the French through Belgium. This drew Britain also into the war. The entry of Japan into the war was seen at this moment in a bid to assist her ally, the Great Britain. United States and Italy later joined the war on different sides of the existing allies. Imperialism Imperialism can be defined as the state where a particular country multiplies their wealth and powers by colonizing many territories and bringing them under her control. Before the emergence of World War 1, imperialism was rampant amo ng many European countries. Some parts of Asia and Africa were the main centers up for grabs among the European countries. This was so because of the availability of the raw materials in these regions (John, 2010).

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Statistical Foundations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Statistical Foundations - Essay Example The study was conducted in order to understand which activities were taken simultaneously by couples and which of those were separately done. Furthermore, it was the concern of the study to find out if activities conducted together by couples were more enjoyable than those done separately by them. In order to find out the above objectives, the study was able to make use of diaries given to couples in order that they could provide information on the quality of time and ways in which they could manipulate their proportion of time in order to maximize their enjoyment of it. Thus, the time diary analysis can significantly provide information on the domestic division of labour, the quality of time and couples’ significant ways on manipulating time to increase the proportion of enjoyable time (Sullivan, 1996). Unlike any other studies, this study was able to make use of diary instead of survey questionnaires. The bottom line of this was to include the concept and important issues in sociology of emotions. The proponent of this study believed that it may be encompassed by the context of sociology of emotion when it comes to creating an empirical link between the debates on the domestic division of labour and affective relationship between couples (Sullivan, 1996). Detailed description of the statistical inference ... The first consideration of this study was the selection of samples which primarily involved those coming from the whole population of married couples. However, the study was able to make use of stratified sampling considering that there were different categories of couples which primarily involved a.) young couples (under 40) with no children, b.) households with young children (youngest under five) and woman was employed, c.) households with young children (youngest under five) and woman was not employed d.) households with older children (youngest over five) and woman was employed, e.) households with older children (youngest over five) and woman was not employed, and f.) retired employees (Sullivan, 1996). This was all about setting parameters which in this case was trying to come up with information that the author of the study believed to have eradicated the probable bias in data gathering. The respondents who were couples were given diaries and out from them the following infor mation were gathered: ‘the sequential pattern of activities for the entire day for both women and men, the proportion of men’s and women’s time spent in various activities, the proportion of that time spent doing the same activity as a spouse or known as simultaneous activity, women and men’s enjoyment of different activities, and the enjoyment of different activities undertaken and non-simultaneously’ (Sullivan, 1996). Since there was no generally accepted definition of enjoyment as discussed by the proponent based on the available related literature, the study was able to come up with enjoyment rating scale from 1 to 5, 1 - enjoying a lot, 2 – enjoying a little, 3 – neutral, 4 –

Monday, January 27, 2020

Causes Of Computer Vision Syndrome Health And Social Care Essay

Causes Of Computer Vision Syndrome Health And Social Care Essay The computer has become backbone of todays occupational settings. They are the heartbeats of the modern world. Computers are everywhere from kitchen to concrete mixers, from planes to pockets. Without computer, world has no global awareness. It has created a brand new environment. A new culture has been born- free, rapid and universal, where people share their knowledge and expertise. Computer has spread its wings within the nursing profession also and nurses are no longer passive users of computer technology, but are now becoming the innovators, developers and implementers of computer systems. (Suparna.K,et.al., (2005). Vision is our most precious sense. Our eyes are in constant use every waking minute of every day. Over 80% of our learning is mediated through our eyes, indicating the important role our vision plays in our daily activities. Vision disturbance is a silent enemy that only appears after along period of continued stress. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) reported that computer operators, who view their Video Display Terminals, report more eye-related problems than non- Video Display Terminals office workers and also indicated that visual symptoms occur in 75-90% of Video Display Terminals workers with 22% of Video Display Terminals workers have musculoskeletal disorders. A survey of optometrists indicated that 10 million eye examinations are annually given in American country because of visual problems at Video Display Terminals. This study delineated the series of symptoms which eventually known as Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS). This condition most often occurs when the viewing demand of the task exceeds the visual abilities of the Video Display Terminals user. The American Optometric Association defines computer vision syndrome as that complex of eye and vision problems related to near work which are experience during or related to computer use. The symptoms can vary but mostly include eyestrain, headaches, blurred vision (distance or near), dry and irritated eyes, slow refocusing, neck and or backache, light sensitivity and double vision. Using computers for long hours put repetitive stress on body, muscles and joints especially to eyes. Problems related to eyes affect all those who spend a significant time working with computers. There are many IT professionals who spend most of their time in front of computer screen are at risk of computer vision syndrome. The computer technology has its own pros and cons, the majority of these issues are related to health. The increased use of computers in the workplace has brought about the development of a number of health concerns. Many individuals who work at a computer Video Display Terminal reports a high level of job related complaints and symptoms including ocular discomfort, muscular strain and stress. The level of discomfort appears to increase with the amount of video display terminal use. Visual discomfort and related symptoms occurring in Video Display Terminal workers must be recognized as a growing health problem. Lutron, (1998). NEED FOR STUDY: Computer Vision Syndrome holds the distinction of being called the number one occupational hazard of the 21st century. Prevention of injury and illness is obviously, the best approach, but comprehensive health care and safety programs can help to reduce corporate sectors workplace injuries, absenteeism or presenteeism and related expenses. A fitness program was designed to reduce the symptoms of computer vision syndrome in software professionals. A pre and post-test study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the fitness program. The study revealed that the fitness program helped to reduce the symptoms of computer vision syndrome in software professionals. Namrata Arora Charpe and Vandana Kaushik, (2009) According to National Association of Software Companies, (2006) reported that number of workers is rapidly growing in information technology (IT) sector. Around one million computer professionals are graduating from various courses every year. While 10% of the work force was using computer for their occupational activities in 1980s, the percentage of users is expected to reach 100 million by the end of the 21st century. A National Survey of Doctors of Optometry (NSDO), (1997) reported that more than 14% of the patients present with eye or vision related symptoms resulting from Video Display Terminals work. The most common symptoms are eyestrain, headache, blurred vision, and light sensitivity, double vision, and color distortion. High visual demands of Video Display Terminals work make many individuals susceptible to the development of eye and vision related symptoms. American Optometric Association (2001) has reported that 90% of computer users had visual problems and 10% had musculoskeletal fatigue and also stated that there is an increase in employee complaints about computer vision syndrome. Despite the fact that 99.99% of the risk factors are 100% preventable, no concrete efforts are taken to ensure computer workers health. Majority of population involved in computer related jobs, no significant research in computer related health problems has been carried out in India as compared to Western countries. The computer vision syndromes remain under estimated and poorly understood issue at the work place. The general public, health professionals, the government and private industries need to be educated about this computer vision syndrome. Therefore there is a need to have a comprehensive study on the subject in order to create awareness and diminish the risk factors in the industry. Modern nursing focuses on holistic approach. It involves teaching in all aspects of health. Nurses have the responsibility in this advanced world of technology to identify the symptoms of Computer Vision Syndrome and to create awareness regarding the management of such problems among computer professionals. So, the researcher felt that it is one of the responsibilities of the community health nurses as a health care professional to start creating awareness among people who are at risk for developing Computer vision syndrome and also believes that the present study will be a stepping stone in this direction. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: A study to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on prevention of computer vision syndrome in terms of knowledge and practice among the computer professionals in selected a area at Salem. OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate the structured teaching programme on prevention of computer vision syndrome among the computer professional. To assess and compare the pre-test and the post-test knowledge score on prevention of computer vision syndrome among samples. To assess and compare the pre-test and the post-test practice score on prevention of computer vision syndrome among samples. To find the association between the level of pre-test practice score on prevention of computer vision syndrome among the samples and their selected demographic variables (Age, years of working on computer, hours of daily working on computer.) HYPOTHESES 🙠 Level of significance at P H1: The mean post-test knowledge score is higher than the mean pre-test knowledge scores on prevention of Computer Vision Syndrome among computer professionals. H2: The mean post-test practice score is higher than the mean pre-test practice scores on prevention of Computer Vision Syndrome among computer professionals. H3: There is a significant association between level of the pre-test practice score on prevention of the Computer Vision Syndrome and their selected demographic variables. H3(a):There is a significant association between level of the pre-test practice score on prevention of the Computer Vision Syndrome among computer professionals and their age. H3(b):There is a significant association between level of the pre-test practice score on prevention of Computer Vision Syndrome among computer professionals and their years of working on computer. H3(c):There is a significant association between level of the pre-test practice score on prevention of Computer Vision Syndrome among computer professionals and their hours of daily working on computer . OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: 1. Assess the effectiveness: It refers to the difference between the mean pre-test knowledge and practice score and mean post-test knowledge and practice score of computer professionals regarding prevention of computer vision syndrome. Knowledge: In this study knowledge refers to known information on prevention of computer vision syndrome which is assessed by using a structured knowledge questionnaire. The total scores was converted into percentage and interpreted as follows, above 75% adequate knowledge, 51-74% moderate knowledge, below 50% inadequate knowledge. Practice: In this study the practice refers to the adopted practice on prevention of computer vision syndrome which is observed by researcher by using a observational check list on 15th day. The total scores was converted into percentage and interpreted as follows, above 75% adequate practice, 51-74% moderate practice, below 50% inadequate practice. 2. Structured Teaching Programme: It refers to systematically well planned and prepared by the investigator, on prevention of computer vision syndrome for computer professionals in terms of meaning, definition, causes, signs and symptoms, prevention and management of computer vision syndrome. 3. Prevention: It refers to the protective measures that need to be followed by the computer professionals to minimize the occurrence of computer visual problems. 4. Computer Vision Syndrome: It refers the vision problems which occur for computer professionals those who spend more time in computer work. Computer Vision Syndrome refers to the complex of eye and vision problems which include headache, blurred vision, neck pain, fatigue, eyestrain, dry eye, irritated eye and difficulty in refocusing the eyes related to near work during computer use experienced by the computer professionals working in a selected BPO(Business Process Outsourcing) centre. Computer Professionals: Those who are working data entry operators on computer for more than 6 hours per day belong to age group of 21-40 years. ASSUMPTIONS: Computer professionals may have some knowledge and practice regarding prevention of computer vision syndrome. Structured teaching programme will promote specific preventive measures in the management of computer vision syndrome. ETHICAL CONSIDERATION: Formal permission was to be obtained from the settings before the conduction of the study. Written consent was to be obtained from the subjects prior to the data collection. All the information was kept confidential. DELIMITATION: The study is delimited to computer professionals working in BPO (Business Process Outsourcing) centre in at Salem. The study is delimited to a period of 6 weeks. The study is delimited to 30 samples. SUMMMARY: This chapter dealt with the introduction, need for the study, statement of the problem, objectives, hypotheses, operational definition, assumption, ethical consideration and delimitation. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Review of literature is a systematic identification, selection, critical analysis and written description of related materials pertaining to the area of study or topic of interest to expand existing knowledge or to develop new knowledge Polit and Hungler,(2006). The related literature of the present study is organized and presented as follows: Section-I: Studies related to incidence and prevalence of Computer vision syndrome. Section-II: Studies related to risk factors and causes of Computer vision syndrome. Section-III: Studies related to signs and symptoms of the computer vision syndrome. Section-IV: Studies related to Preventive aspects of Computer vision syndrome. SECTION-I: STUDIES RELATED TO INCIDENCE AND PREVALENCE OF COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME. Mohamed Mabrouk Abdelaziz, et.al., (2009) conducted a study on the incidence and degree of visual defects among computer users. In this study, 100 subjects (50 computer users and 50 non computer users) were taken. Using standard Snellens chart and Ishihara chart, visual acuity and colour vision tests were conducted. When compared to non computer users, the visual acuity of computer users showed a significant decrease (P Banibrata Das and Tirthankar Ghosh, (2010) conducted a s study to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal and visual disorders among the visual display terminal. The study was conducted in the different office premises in Kolkata. After selections of the locations, 100 visual display terminal (VDT) workers are selected randomly comprising 50 male and 50 female. A detailed study based on a modified Nordic questionnaire was performed among these visual display terminal workers for study period to measure the outcome of epidemiological studies on musculoskeletal disorders. The result of the study was that the Lower back problem is the main problem among visual display terminal workers. The both male and female visual display terminal workers also suffered pain in neck, shoulder, fore arm, wrist, elbow and the different parts of the upper extremities. This study revealed that the female visual display terminal workers suffer more discomfort feeling than male visual display terminal work ers. In this study, it was clearly mentioned that the discomfort feeling was relatively high among the aged visual display terminal workers. The prolonged period of work in an uncomfortable posture mainly lead to discomfort feeling among the visual display terminal workers. Another finding of this study was that both male and female visual display terminal workers suffered from visual stress due to prolonged period of work and without using of antiglare screen in a monitor. The conclusion of this study was the visual display terminal workers suffered pain mainly in the upper extremities and lower back of the body. They also suffered from visual stress. Females have a higher discomfort feeling than male visual display terminal workers. Mohamed Ali .K and Sathiyasekaran B.W.C, (2006) conducted a study on the prevalence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome among computer professionals and risk factors. There were 648 subjects were selected from 4,276 computer professionals from 21 companies with a simple random sampling method. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome was diagnosed based on clinical features. The prevalence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome was found to be 13.1% (95% CI 10.5-15.7%). Subjects with over 8 years of computer work, over 12 hrs of work per day and system administrators were at a higher risk for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (OR 3.3, 4.9 and 2.5 respectively). Flexed or extended hand position had higher risk for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Higher risk for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome was found with higher exposure to computer work. Ergonomic considerations are important in facilitating proper positioning of hand while working with a computer. Richa Talwar, et.al., (2009) conducted a study to assess the prevalence of health disorders among computer professionals and its association with working environment conditions. The study design was cross sectional. There were 200 computer professionals taken as sample size from Delhi which included software developers, call centre workers, and data entry workers. The prevalence of visual problems in the study group was 76% (152/200), and musculoskeletal problems were reported by 76.5% (153/200). The result of the study exposed that there was a gradual increase in visual complaints as the number of hours spent for working on computers daily increased and the same relation was found to be true for musculoskeletal problems as well. Visual problems were less in persons using antiglare screen and those with adequate lighting in the room. Musculoskeletal problems were found to be significantly lesser among those using cushioned chairs and soft keypad. A significant proportion of the compu ter professionals were found to be having health problems and this denotes that the occupational health of the people working in the computer field needs to be emphasized as a field of concern in occupational health. SECTION II: STUDIES RELATED TO RISK FACTORS AND CAUSES OF COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME Izquierdo JC,et.al., (2007) conducted an observational study to identify the risk factors leading to the computer vision syndrome . Twenty-eight participants answered a validated questionnaire and had their workstations observed. The questionnaire evaluated the personal, environmental, ergonomic factors and physiologic response of computer users. The distance from the eye to the computers monitor (A), the computers monitor height (B), and visual axis height (C) were measured. The difference between monitor height and visual axis height was calculated and labeled as D. Angles of look to the computer monitor were calculated using the formula [angle=tan-1(D/A)]. Angles were divided into two groups participants with angles of gaze ranging from 0 degree to 13.9 degrees were included in Group 1; and participants gazing at angles larger than 14 degrees were included in Group 2. Statistical analysis of the evaluated variables was done. The findings of this study revealed that computer users in both groups used more tear supplements (as part of the syndrome) than expected. This association was statistically significant (p Zairina A. Rahman and Suhaila Sanip, (2011) conducted a study to identify sociodemographic and computer related predictors for computer vision syndrome .Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is an eyes and vision problems related to the activities that experienced in relation to the use of computer. Cross-sectional study and face-to-face interviews and workstation assessment was done. The finding of this study revealed that 68.1% reported computer vision syndrome symptoms. Among the samples, only 19.3% of the respondents put their computer on computer table and 61.9% took at least 10 minutes rest while on continuous one hour computer work. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the predictors for computer vision syndrome were female (OR=2.3), age 7 hours per day (OR=2.01). and also the study concluded that the use of correction lenses and long duration on continuous computer work predispose a person to get computer vision syndrome . Resting their eyes in between continuous computer work will be helpful to reduce possibility to get computer vision syndrome. Rosenfield M, et.al., (2012) conducted a study on effects of induced oblique astigmatism on symptoms and reading performance on viewing a computer screen. The researcher recorded the symptoms of the computer user after a 10 minutes period of reading from a computer monitor either through the habitual distance refractive correction or with a supplementary of -1.00 or -2.00D oblique cylinder added over these lenses among 12 samples. The distance correction condition was repeated to assess the repeatability of the symptom and monitored the samples reading speed accuracy for the period of 10 min trial. The findings of the study revealed that there was no significant difference in reading rate or the number of errors between the three astigmatic conditions, but there was a significant change in the median total symptom scores for the 0, 1 and 2D astigmatic conditions being 2.0, 6.5 and 40.0 respectively (p Chu C, et.al., (2011) conducted a study to identify computer vision syndrome signs are particular to computer function, or merely a symptom of executing a continued near-vision job. There are thirty young samples those who are visually normal were requested to read text audibly either from a standalone computer or on a paper at a screening distance of fifty centimeter for a constant twenty minutes time. For the two sessions the text were used and then the size and contrast were matched. For the two situations, the target angle and luminance were alike. After the reading sessions were over, the samples were requested to finish the written questionnaire based on their level of visual discomfort in the work time. The result of this study disclosed by discriminating the computer and hardcopy situations and confirmed that there was a noteworthy dissimilarity in median symptom scores with consider to blurred vision in the work time. (time=147.0; period =0.03) and average symptom score (tim e = 102.5; period = 0.04). In the two cases, symptoms were elevated when the use of computer. Symptoms when the prolonged computer use was considerably poorer than those reported after hard copy fascination under identical examining situations. The result of this study helps the practitioners to optimize visual comfort and efficiency during computer operation. SECTION III: STUDIES RELATED TO SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME. Ranit Kishore and Ashish Arya (2011) conducted a review on studies related to signs and symptoms of computer vision syndrome. Millions of people around the world are using the computers not only as a business tool but as a recreational product as well. Predictions indicate that fully more than 70% of the working population will be using computers by the year 2011. There are also approximately 820 million internet users, with an expected explosion of users to over one billon in the next few years. This heavy computer use leads to various problems related to eyes. According to the report over 100 million people in the United States today use computers. More than 50 percent experience eyestrain, headaches, blurred vision and other visual symptoms related to sustained use of the computer the result might be quite similar for India. This type of stress on the visual system can also cause body fatigue and reduced efficiency at work. The authors have tied to conclude some of the major illne sses which may come during normal working hours on a computer with some of the possible solutions of those problems. Loh K.Y and Reddy S.C, (2008) conducted a review on the various signs and symptoms related to the computer vision syndrome. The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome. MiljanoviĆ¡ B, et.al., (2007) conducted a cross sectional study on the visual related dry eye syndrome. Four hundred and fifty samples in Womens Health Study and two hundred and forty samples were taken for this study. The supplementary questionnaire consists of symptoms of dry eye in daily activities and their problems while reading, working with computer, watching television etc.The result of this study exposed that 1/3rd of study samples had clinically diagnosed dry eye syndrome or rigorous symptoms and 2/3rd did not. Logistic regression was employed to observe associations of dry eye syndrome with reported dilemmas with daily actions in every group and grouped guesses using meta-analysis methods. Out of the samples, eighty five percent completed the additional questionnaire, comprising one hundred and thirty five Womens Health Study and 55 Physicians Health Study participants with dry eye syndrome, and 250 Womens Health Study and 149 Physicians Health Study participants without dry eye syndrome. Controlling for age, diabetes, hypertension and other factors, those with dry eye syndrome were more likely to report problems with reading ([odds ratio] OR = 3.64, 95% [confidence interval] CI 2.45 to 5.40, P Barar A, et.al., (2007) gathered the data in the ophthalmologic literature from the Internet.. It was noted that the complex of eye and vision symptoms occurred due to prolonged use of computer and stress. The following are the recurrent complaints from the computer users i.e., blurred distance or near vision, neck and backache, dry and irritated eyes, eye-strain asthenopia, headaches, slow refocusing. In most of the developed countries, there are recommendations issued by renowned medical associations with regard to the definition, the diagnosis, and the methods for the prevention, treatment and periodical control of the symptoms found in computer users, in conjunction with an extremely detailed ergonomic legislation whereas in developing countries like India, it is necessary to rouse the interest of ophthalmologist colleagues in understanding and recognition of these symptoms and in their treatment, or at least their improvement, through specialized measures or through the coopera tion with specialist occupational medicine colleagues. SECTION IV: STUDIES RELATED TO PREVENTIVE ASPECTS OF COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME Ostrovsky A, et.al., (2012) conducted a study on effects of job related stress and burnout on computer vision syndrome among high tech workers. 106 samples were included in this study. All participants completed self-report questionnaires including demographics, computer vision syndrome, and satisfaction with work environmental conditions, job-related stress and burnout. The finding of this study revealed that there was a significant between-group difference in the intensity of computer vision syndrome, but not in its frequency. Burnout appeared to be a significant contributing factor to the intensity and frequency of computer vision syndrome and also the study showed that burnout is a significant factor in computer vision syndrome complaints among high-tech workers. The study concluded the ergonomic impact to improve health, safety and comfort of the working environment among computer users, for better perception of the job environment. Gangamma.M.P, et.al., (2010) conducted a experimental study on computer vision syndrome and its management with triphala eye drops and SaptamritaLauha tablets. There were one hundred and fifty one patients were taken for this study. From this, one hundred and forty one finished the treatment. Forty five patients had been advised to take Triphala eye drops in Group A; Fifty three patients had been advised to take the Triphala eye drops and also prescribed them to take internally SaptamritaLauha tablets. Forty three patients had been suggested to take the placebo eye drops in Group 3. The result of the study exposed that there was a significant progress with triphala eye drops in the computer vision syndrome management and also improvement in 48.89, 54.71 and 06.98% patients in groups A, B and C with triphala eye drops and saptamritaLauha tablets. Richardson.S, (2007) conducted a cross sectional study on computer related upper limp pain and computer vision syndrome in Malaysia. In this study, there were one hundred and thirty six computer users were taken as samples who were the University students and office staff. A rapid upper limp evaluation for the office method was employed for assessment of work-related overuse syndrome. The frequency of computer vision syndrome was reviewed by including a 10-point scoring system for every of its different symptoms. The result of this study disclosed that many were using typical keyboard and mouse without a few ergonomic changes. About 50% of them had a little low back pain as of not having an modifiable backrest. Numerous users had higher scores of the wrist and neck recommending raised hazard of increasing occupational overuse syndrome, which required additional interference. Several (64%) were utilizing refractive corrections and still had high scores of computer vision syndrome comm only including eye fatigue, headache and burning sensation. The increase of computer vision syndrome scores (suggesting more subjective symptoms) correlated with increase in computer usage spells. The study concluded that further onsite studies are needed, to follow up this survey to decrease the risks of developing computer vision syndrome amongst young computer users. Yee.R.W, et.al., (2007) conducted a research in signs and symptoms of computer users and preventive measures. The researcher also assessed the eye related problems through the clinical tests for prolonged computer users. There were 40 samples taken for this study for three hours in a day. The scores had been computed based on Ocular Surface Disease Index. The assessment had been done based on the scores. The samples were requested to play the computer games for half an hour and the 4 treatment had been applied in the random order i.e artificial tears, MEGS, no treatment, artificial tears with MEGS(microenvironment glasses). Once the sessions were over, the samples were requested to answer the questionnaire. The result of the study exposed that there was a noteworthy association found in the in the index value. The p values were calculated. They were constantly dissimilar in fluorescein and lissamine green discoloration with P>0.05. There was a noteworthy improvements in the scores an d TBUT(Tear breakup time) and also there was a steady development of progress in lissamine green staining and in fluorescein staining. The computer users those who have ocular complaints should went for ocular surface examination and they were treated with separation of environmental manipulations, ocular surface and artificial tears. Shirley Telles, et.al., (2006) suggested that the yoga practice appeared to diminish visual anxiety. Dry eye occurs due to computer vi

Sunday, January 19, 2020

England rural life Essay

â€Å"Out, Out†Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ is about childhood in rural New England. It shows how children had to work in the late 1800s and early 1900s when Robert Frost was a young boy. The poem illustrates a negative image of growing up in the rural life of New England. It demonstrates how quickly and unexpectedly death can happen, but, also, the harsh fact that life has to go on.  The title of the poem ‘†Out, Out†Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ is a quotation from William Shakespeare’s play ‘Macbeth’. It is taken from Macbeth’s soliloquy after his wife (Lady Macbeth) kills herself, and he reflects on the brevity and pointlessness of life:  Ã¢â‚¬ËœOut, out, brief candle!’ It is significant to this poem because Frost is also reflecting on the futility and shortness of life through the loss and the innocence of the child, which is illustrated through the emergency and alarm in the boy’s pointless plea:  Ã¢â‚¬ËœDon’t let him cut my hand off-‘  The poem is written in blank verse, using the iambic pentameter of ten syllables per line to imitate in the natural rhythm of speech.  At the beginning of the poem Frost uses personification of the buzz saw to create an effective opening, which is furthered by the unpleasant sounds of the onomatopoeic snarling and rattling – giving the buzz saw a frightening image, and creating a vivid negative representation of rural life in New England. Frost contrasts this first impression with the imagery of ‘sweet scented stuff’ that is blown by the breeze, and his ironic statement that ‘nothing happened’, which effectively leaves the reader unprepared for the followin g events. Frost dramatically shows how dangerous life working in rural New England can be when the boy has his hand cut of by the saw, which is sinister on its own, but the sombreness of the situation is heightened by the saw being personified even more:  Ã¢â‚¬ËœÃ¢â‚¬ ¦ the saw,  As if to prove saws knew that supper meant,  Leaped out at the boy’s hand’  When the boy’s hand is lost, Frost uses repetition of ‘hand’ to emphasis the hardship of how young children were expected to work from such a young age. This point of working children is further pointed out when the boy’s work is compared to a man’s:  Ã¢â‚¬ËœDoing a man’s work, though a child at heart-‘  From this the reader can see how hard life was to grow up in rural New England. As the poem ends, it appears more sinister as Frost reflects on the young boy dying and the pointlessness of life through the illustration of sinister words such as ‘the dark of either’. The dashes create effective pauses as the boy takes his last breath, helping to highlight the hardness of rural life to the reader. ‘Little-less-nothing!-and that ended it.’  The tone of the poem is relaxed and casual in the beginning, but changes after the boy’s sister tells them ‘†Supper.†Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ The tone becomes tenser and appears to be insensitive due to Frost’s bluntness about death.  Ã¢â‚¬ËœAnd they, since they  Were not the one dead, turned to their affairs.’  However, Frost is stating the harsh fact of life – that it has to go on for people to survive, even after a terrible grievance. I think this fact is particularly true for rural life in New England at this time. This is because farms still had to be looked after to ensure the farmer got money to support himself and his family, therefore, they could not afford to stop everything – it was not that they did not care about the death of the young boy. The sinister tone of this poem is contrasted to the more light-hearted poem, ‘Birches’. Through ‘Birches’, Frost is reminiscence about his childhood and is thinking about a simpler and easier time in his life. The poem outlines the innocence of being a child and illustrates how harsh life can be as an adult.  Ã¢â‚¬ËœBirches’, like ‘†Out, Out†Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ, is written in blank verse, using the iambic pentameter of ten syllables per line to imitate in the natural rhythm of speech.  In comparison to the previous poem (‘†Out, Out†Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ) ‘Birches’ shows the more positive yet still some negative aspects of life in rural New England. It positively represents a fairly straightforward time for Frost, a time when he was able to conquer the trees:  Ã¢â‚¬ËœAnd not one but hung limp, not one was left’  The repetition of ‘not one’ in this quotation emphasises his success in climbing the birch trees. His use of alliteration on the ‘k’ sound helps describe the skill needed to conqu er the trees in this way. Climbing carefully  with the same pains you use to fill a cup ‘  In the poem Frost shows how rural life in New England can be lonely for a young boy, which shows a negative aspect to rural life in New England.  Ã¢â‚¬ËœSome boy too far from town to learn baseball  Whose only play was what he found himself’  Furthermore, this vividly shows how rural children were more independent and able to amuse themselves, but it does show how they were very isolated from other children with no-one to play in the birch trees with.  For Frost, the birch trees are a way to escape the pressures of being grown up. The poem shows how he is yearning to climb the birch trees once again and metaphorically escape from the earth. ‘I’d like to go by climbing a birch tree’  The poem has a casual tone, just as ‘†Out, Out†Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ but ‘Birches’ maintains this casual and relaxed tone throughout unlike ‘†Out, Out†Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ which changes to a more sinister tone. The tone of ‘Birches’ does become more when Frost personifies fate to misunderstand him:  Ã¢â‚¬ËœMay no fate wilfully misunderstand me’  Although the tone of ‘Birches’ becomes more philosophical it still maintains a casual tone. The casual tone in ‘Birches’ of the poem is captured by the colloquial language that is used. ‘But I was going to say . . .’  After reading and studying both ‘†Out, Out†Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ and ‘Birches’ I prefer ‘Birches’ as I feel it makes rural life in New England more vivid. I think ‘†Out, Out†Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ is a more sinister and negative approach to look upon rural life. But, Frost illustrates a more vivid image through the use of alliteration throughout ‘Birches’ which creates a more real and vivid representation than ‘†Out, Out†Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

First Amendment to the United States Constitution Essay

We live in a society where we pride individuality and staying true to who we are, but contradictingly enough we have large numbers of minorities being discriminated for being who they are. Racism being a strongly relevant issue, even in our day and time, doesn’t get dealt with as seriously as it should. Charles R. Lawrence III takes a firm stand addressing this issue arguing that racist speech should be regulated in universities rather than be protected by the first amendment. He claims that universities need to regulate racist speech in order for their students to really receive the equal educational opportunity they deserve. Getting rid of racist speech would be the only way to give all students the equal opportunity to learn and participate in their university. Lawrence makes strong claims in his argument; however, a lot of his argument is supported through his writing techniques. Charles Lawrence in his argumentative essay â€Å"On Racist Speech,† implements emotion-provoking diction, subtle figurative language and a thoughtful use of detail in order to effectively dispute the need for the regulation of racist speech. In his essay, â€Å"On Racist Speech,† Lawrence argues that universities should regulate racist speech. He points out that when racist speech involves insults, catcalls or assaultive speech, it becomes â€Å"fighting words,† which have been declared by the Supreme Court to not be protected under the first amendment of free speech. Lawrnence argues that racial insults shouldn’t be protected by the first amendment anyway because, the speakers intentions aren’t to â€Å"discover the truth or to initiate dialogue, but to injure the victim†. He also says that the need for regulations on racism advocated under the university’s responsibility to offer equal educational opportunity. Students don’t have the equal opportunity to learn and participate when they are crippled by the fact that at any time they could be struck with verbal harassment or assault. Lawrence offers a counterargument saying how free speech is the lifehood of our democratic system and that it is impossible to outlaw racist speech without suppressing other kinds of speech necessary for our democratic society Using certain words with specific emotional appeal, Lawrence effectively draws emotion out of the reader and strengthens his argument putting the reader at an emotional, personal level with the argument. For example, he first mentions how â€Å"we will be forced to combat [bad speech]† (51). He specifically chooses to use â€Å"combat,† a word with a far more aggressiveconnotation and weight, rather than a more passive word such as address. By doing so Lawrence expresses to the reader the urgency and grave seriousness of the situation; how racist speech is an actual, reckonable force that nees to be contended with. Also, he depicts the matter to be a â€Å"cry† from â€Å"victims† with â€Å"injuries† and â€Å"burdens,† all words with implied emotional context (51, 54). Just by picking certain words, Lawrence successfully uses pathos, pulling the emotions out of the reader and making them feel pity for the minorities. Ultimately with the right words, Lawrence makes the minorities more than just demographics; they become a group of people pressed under injustice and in need of help. He essentially, uses diction to play the readers heartstrings in a manner to make them feel sympathy for the minorities and further sway the reader to support his argument. Lawrence implements figurative language providing material from which the reader can mentally draw an image or feeling from, by which he further intensifies his argument, and ultimately making it more real and relatable. For example, he describes racism to have â€Å"rising flames† in the beginning of his essay (51). He draws a parallel between the situation of racist speech and an out of control fire. By painting such a strong image, he expresses the severity of the issue as well as how it must be addressed urgently. Rising flames aren’t something to shilly shally around with; likewise, neither is the problem of racist speech. Another example is when he describes the â€Å"use of words as assault weapons† (54). By comparing words, simple means of expressions, to assault weapons, firearms meant to hurt, he suggests the brutality of the issue. By putting racist speech next to weapons of destruction, Lawrence effectively shows how racist speech has actual ramifications that hurt and damage others. Also by giving this comparison, he’s able to put a nasty, cruel feeling in the reader’s mind, a feeling that would really stick with them. Lawrence’s use of figurative language proves to be very effective in getting to the reader, because it puts images, and consequently feelings, in the readers mind. He manages to give actual substance to the argument, substance the reader can see or feel. Lawrence sensibly avoids expounding upon the particulars of â€Å"racist speech,† which would have added smaller, more complicated arguments, and ultimately added extra baggage that could turn away readers. Touching upon sensitive issues of racism and free speech, he already packs a heavy load of content for the reader to digest and reflect upon. If he were to add more with what he believes racist speech should be defined as, he would risk losing readers, and not just to an overload of content. By providing a set definition, Lawrence would basically just be throwing out one more thing for the reader to possibly disagree with. Would his definition be too strict, he’d lose some rather more lenient readers and vice versa. Asserting more of his opinion would have created more room for disagreement with the reader, especially when discussing such touchy subjects. Drawing boundaries of racist speech would have just made his controversial essay more controversial. Lawrence having already sensitized the reader talking about â€Å"racial violence† on â€Å"victims† with â€Å"injuries† and whatnot, portrays his argument to be more than just a cold expression of his opinion. Having evoked the reader’s emotions, he had to consider them, making sure not to say something too sensitive that would really strike the reader. By leaving the definition open to the reader, not only does he allow the reader to create their own stand on the issue, where they could personalize it and make it relatable to their lives, but he avoids coming off as overbearing which would have been a clear turn off to readers. Also, by steering clear of precarious details, Lawrence is able to really stick the nitty gritty to the reader and just get his argument out there and heard to a wider array of audiences. Lawrence effectively uses rhetorical devices such as diction, figurative language and details in favor of his argument to regulate racist speech. As serious and urgent Lawrence calls for the regulation of racist speech is, realistically it seems impossible. â€Å"Racist speech† is far too subjective of a matter to have any form of regulation. Plus, it would be impossible to outlaw racist speech without suppressing other speech. That however, does not dismiss the issue. We should rather confront the issue on smaller levels and address it from the source—ourselves. Simply if we were all to simply just stop making or encouraging racist remarks, whether that be indirectly or just for laughs, there would no need for racism to be regulated. If we all were to progress to be accepting of all races, racism would just plainly be a thing of the past.

Friday, January 3, 2020

The Color Chemistry That Makes Mars Red

When you look up in the sky, you can recognize Mars by its red color. Yet, when you see photos of Mars taken on Mars, many colors are present. What makes Mars the Red Planet and why doesnt it always look red close-up? The short answer for why Mars appears red, or at least red-orange, is because the Martian surface contains a large amount of rust or iron oxide. The iron oxide forms a rust dust that floats in the atmosphere and sits as a dusty coating across much of the landscape. Why Mars Has Other Colors Up Close The dust in the atmosphere causes Mars to appear very rusty from space. When viewed from the surface, other colors are apparent, in part because landers and other instruments dont have to peer through the whole atmosphere to see them, and partly because rust exists in colors other than red, plus there are other minerals on the planet. While red is a common rust color, some iron oxides are brown, black, yellow and even green! So, if you see green on Mars, it doesnt mean there are plants growing on the planet. Rather, some of the Martian rocks are green, just like some rocks are green on Earth. Where Does the Rust Come From? So, you may be wondering where all this rust comes from  since Mars has more iron oxide in its atmosphere than any other planet. Scientists are not completely sure, but many believe the iron was pushed up by the volcanoes that used to erupt. Solar radiation caused atmospheric water vapor to react with the iron to form iron oxides or rust. Iron oxides also may have come from iron-based meteorites, which can react with oxygen under the influence of solar ultraviolet radiation to form iron oxides.